CORE – Etnografie
Limbajul costumului popular.
text: Adina Branciulescu
Acum 70 de ani, un fotograf ambulant s-a oprit in casa in care locuiesc azi. Bunicul, fratele lui si strabunicul s-au fotografiat purtand (sus) costumul popular specific zonei –Ibanesti, Mures. Pe atunci, haina il facea cunoscut pe om dupa un cod riguros; costumul se schimba odata cu varsta si transmitea informatii despre situatia materiala si starea civila. Costumul unui flacau pare un pom in floare; la fiecare dintre rascrucile vietii pierde din podoabe, pentru a ajunge la batranete simplu si auster ca un trunchi in iarna. Tanarul necasatorit isi facea cunoscuta starea civila prin camasa inflorata si palarie cu pana inalta si zgardan, ornament din margele. La fiecare moment important, lasa ceva in urma: pana (la casatorie), zgardanul (la nasterea primului copil), iar ornamentele cusute la maneci si pe langa gat in jos erau tot mai discrete, pana ajungeau linii serpuite. Tinuta femeii respecta acelasi cod. Cat era nemaritata, avea motive florale colorate (cheita) de-a lungul manecii camasii, umbla cu capul descoperit si cu doua cozi impletite (una singura cand se apropia de maritis). Dupa casatorie, pe maneca avea cusuta doar o banda decorativa in partea de sus (umar) si-si acoperea capul cu un batic galben sau cu o naframa mare, cu ciucuri, la joc. „Nevasta bogata isi cosea umarul pana jos, din margele. Cea saraca il avea mai ingust, de la el pornind doar cateva siruri de cheite“ – spune Virgil Chirtes, director la scoala din Ibanesti-Padure. Dupa ce dadea nastere primului copil, femeia renunta la cromatica vesela si purta costumul caracteristic Tarii Barsei – sobru, in alb si negru.
Odata cu batranii, dispare si limbajul costumului popular. Tinerii prefera versiunile „moderne“, adaptari etno influentate de moda.
Strabunicul, incadrat de bunicul autoarei (dreapta) si de fratele acestuia (stanga), ilustreaza simplificarea costumului popular odata cu varsta.
Foto: Arhiva personala
varianta in limba engleza, mai jos:
traducere de Adriana Hoanca.
CORE – Ethnography
The language of the folk costume. 70 years ago, an itinerant photographer stopped by at the house where I live today. My grandfather, his brother and my great-grandfather had their picture taken (above) wearing the specific folk costume for the area of Ib`ne[ti, Mure[. Back then, a person’s outfit communicated clear information about its owner, according to a rigorous code. The costume continuously changed with its owner’s age, conveying info on their wealth and marital status. An unmarried lad’s costume looked like a blooming tree. With each of the big crossroads in his life, he lost yet another adorning element, reaching his old age as simple and as stern as an old trunk in winter. The unmarried young man announced his marital status with his flower-embroidered shirt, and his hat adorned with a long feather and a zg`rdan – a special ornament made of beads. With each major moment in his life, he left something else behind: his feather (upon getting married), his zg`rdan (when his first child was born), while ornaments embroidered on his sleeves and going from neck down became increasingly discreet, until turning into mere waving lines. A woman’s attire respected the same code. As an unmarried girl, she had colored flower motifs (chei]`) embroidered along the sleeves of her shirt. She wore nothing on her head, and combed her hair in two plaits (but changed them to only one plait, as she got closer to her marriage age). After her wedding, a single decorative stripe remained embroidered on the upper part of her shirt (um`r), and she covered her head with a yellow scarf or a big sash decorated with tassels, whenever she went dancing. ”A rich wife would embroider her um`r with beads, going all the way down on her shirt sleeve. A poor wife would have a narrower embroidery, with only a few strings of chei]e starting from there“, says Virgil Chirte[, the Head Master of the school in the village of Ib`ne[ti P`dure. Having given birth to her first child, the woman gave up cheerful colors, and wore the sober costume in white and black.
This language of folk costumes is passing away with old people. Youngsters nowadays prefer “modern” versions, ethnographic pieces adapted according to fashion.
The author’s great-grandfather, framed by her grandfather (on the right) and his brother (on the left), illustrate the way this folk costume was getting increasingly simpler as its owner grew older.