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Podul lui Traian

Ilustratie: Radu Oltean

Arheologie

Podul lui Traian

Cel mai lung pod din Imperiul Roman este considerat a opta minune a antichitatii

Apolodor din Damasc a construit Podul peste Dunare de la Drobeta intre anii 103-105, din ordinul imparatului Traian care vroia sa cucereasca Dacia. Stralucit inginer, ofiter de geniu, constructor de masini de asediu, dar si erudit scriitor de literatura tehnica, Apollodor din Damasc a fost unul dintre cei mai vestiti arhitecti al timpului sau. De-a lungul vremii au existat multe controverse privind localizarea si metoda de constructie a podului lui Traian.

In 1971, academicianul Dumitru Tudor a adunat si redat intr-o lucrare toate informatiile disponibile, unele marturii orale – inaccesibile azi. Concluzia lui a este ca podul a fost construit pe uscat, Dunarea fiind partial deviata printr-un canal sapat pe malul iugoslav – de fapt o veche albie a fluviului, colmatata. Astfel, apa a scazut masiv, formindu-se doua canale, despartite de o zona uscata. In apa, acolo unde nu a putut fi scazut nivelul, s-au utilizat chesoanele, niste cutii de lemn formate din doua rinduri de birne batute in solul umed, intre care se asezau saci de argila, apoi se extragea apa din interior. La baza pilonului s-a folosit betonul hidraulic de tip praf de Puteoli (Pozzolana – un ciment natural provenit din calcarele „coapte” de lavele Vezuviului). Se forma o platforma de blocuri de piatra fasonate, legate cu birne de lemn. Peste aceasta platforma se ridica o zidarie din spartura de piatra legata cu mortar si apoi zidarie de caramida. Pilonii erau placati cu blocuri de piatra fasonata. Podul era lung de aproximativ 1135 de metri, lat de 15 m si inalt de 19 m.

„Pe fiecare mal exista un portal monumental, care se lega prin 2-3 bolti de zidarie de pilele culee (picioarele principale) situate in dunga apei. Deasupra apei se gasea tablierul podului, adica podeaua, cu balustrade. Portalurile erau zidite din caramida, iar pilele culee, cele mai masive, care astazi se gasesc linga apa, erau construite din spartura de piatra legata cu mortar si straturi de caramida. Picioarele podului lui Traian au ramas mult timp vizibile la suprafata, pina ce serviciile fluviale le-au distrus.”, spune arheologul Dan Ciobotaru.

Inginerul Edgard Duperrex, de la scoala Politehnica Bucuresti a prezentat la expozitia din Capitala din 1906 o macheta a podului, care se afla azi la Muzeul Regiunii Portile de Fier.

Ruinele capului de pod de pe malul romanesc se afla in zona de sud-est a orasului Drobeta Turnu-Severin, in incinta Muzeului. In mai anul acesta, cu ocazia aniversarii a 1900 de ani de la constructia podului, Muzeul a organizat un simpozion international.

O echipa condusa de arheologul Ruxandra Nemteanu a elaborat un proiect de restaurare a piciorului de pod. Proiectul a fost avizat de Comisia Nationala a Monumentelor Istorice, dar deocamdata lipsesc banii pentru conservarea vestigiilor celei mai complexe lucrari de inginerie antica de pe teritoriul Romaniei.

mai jos, versiunea in engleza:

Archeology

Trajan’s bridge

The longest bridge in the Roman Empire.

Apollodorus of Damascus, one of the most famous architects of his time, built the bridge over the Danube between 103-105 by the orders of Emperor Trajan, who wanted to conquer Dacia.

During the history, Trajan’s Bridge location and method of construction stirred up many debates and controversies.

In 1971, academician Dumitru Tudor gathered in a monumental work all the information available on this subject — some of it inaccessible today.

He concluded that the bridge was constructed on dry land. Danube was partially deviated by a channel dug on the Yugoslavian bank along an old clogged riverbed. The water level lowered drastically. Two channels were formed, separated by a dry area. Where the river level could not be lowered the Romans used chesoane — boxes made of wood beams fixed in the moist soil. In these huge boxes they put sacks full of clay to extract all the water.

The Romans used hydraulic concrete (Pozzolana – a kind of natural cement from the Vesuvius’s “baked” limestones) at the pier’s base. Then a platform of shaped stone blocks tided with wooden beam was formed.

Over this platform there was a masonry made of cracked stones and mortar and on top of that, some brickwork (photo). The pillars were plated with blocks of shaped stones. The bridge was 1135 meters long, 15 m wide and 19 meters high.

“ The bridge’s pillars remained visible on the surface for a very long time, until they were destroyed by the modern services of navigation”, says archaeologist Dan Ciobotaru.

In 1906, Edgard Duperrex, an engineer from the Polytechnic School, Bucharest, constructed a model of the bridge that can be seen today in the Museum of the “Iron Gates” Region.

The ruins of the Romanian bridgehead (photo) are situated in the southeastern area of Drobeta Turnu-Severin, within the precinct of the Museum.

In May this year, on the occasion of celebration of 1900 years from the construction of Trajan’s bridge over the Danube, the Museum organized an international symposium on this theme.

Currently, a team of archaeologists lead by architect Ruxandra Nemteanu elaborated a project to restore the bridgehead. The National Commission of Historic Monuments approved the project, but for the moment, the money for the conservation of the most complex work of ancient engineering from Romania’s territory is not to be found.

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